社群網路中的性別歧視與性別暴力探討

活動訊息

  • 引言暨主持人:張凱強 秘書長 / 數位女力聯盟

與談人:

  • 李雅菁 委員 / 教育部性平委員會
  • 林萃芬 諮商心理師 / 諮商心理師公會全聯會
  • 蔡沛珊 調部辦事檢察官 / 法務部檢察司
  • 戴伸峰 教授 / 國立中正大學犯罪防制學系暨研究所

主持人開場/張凱強秘書長

數位科技發展日新月異,而COVID-19疫情延長了大家的居家時間,每天接觸網路的時間因此延長。各國研究都指出,COVID-19對性別暴力有所影響,不僅傳統家暴案量攀升,因使用網路空間所產生的新興數位性別暴力案件亦有所增加,無論在實體或數位層面,性別暴力議題都是不可承受之重,今天將由我引言報告,並與四位重量級講者進行對談。

引言報告/張凱強秘書長 【簡報下載

「數位女力聯盟」是一個年輕團體,與其他性別平權組織不同的是,我們所有關懷議題焦點都是從數位角度切入,目前而言,數位領域中最氾濫的性別暴力議題是性私密影像外流,不少不肖份子以此威脅女性,但這僅是眾多暴力行為中的滄海一粟。雖然科技始終來自於人性,但人性也存在陰暗面,數位科技對被害人的傷害更為深遠,科技的種種的便利性卻也給予加害者遂行不良行徑的空間,如下表所示:

數位科技正向功能 相對應的負面影響
即時性 散布迅速
匿名性 身分易藏
互動性 證據有限
快速流通與轉傳性 毀證容易
資料長期保存性 適法困難
無國界性 跨國管轄 偵查不易

國際電信聯盟(International Telecommunication Union,ITU)與聯合國婦女署(UN Women)於2015年出版了一份報告,報告中首次提及數位性別暴力,根據載於報中的研究成果,在所有接受調查研究的女性中,73%的受調女性一生中至少接觸到一種性別暴力,包括:駭竊、偽冒、監控/跟蹤、招募引誘、騷擾濫發、惡意散布私密照片或影像,上述情形代表數位領域中的暴力事件已司空見慣,各國須嚴陣以待。

在性別暴力的相關定義方面,目前國際並未產生統一標準,在國內方面,相關組織雖戮力推動,但相關定義仍顯生硬艱澀。目前被行政院明確指出的數位性別暴力行為包括:網路跟蹤、惡意或未經同意散布與性/性別有關個人私密資料、網路性騷擾、基於性別貶抑或仇恨的言論或行為、性勒索、人肉搜索(Doxxing)、基於性別偏見所為之強暴或死亡威脅、引誘招募、非法駭侵或竊取他人資料及偽造或冒用身分。

性平組織「邊邊女力協會」與「數位女力聯盟」共同合作參考諸多文獻和國內外案例,歸類出數位性別暴力的五大類別,包括:基於性別的隱私權侵害、基於性別的仇恨言論或行為、數位性騷擾或虛擬性侵、數位人口販運性剝削、基於圖像影音的濫用,五大項目中還包含21個子項目。基於性別的隱私權侵害包括:人肉搜索、數位跟蹤騷擾、非法入侵或竊取他人資料。即使性別暴力行為遍見於PTT於網路之中,但加害者卻拒絕承認自己的加害者身分,甚至於網路上散布仇恨或責難受害者的言論。

網路上的加害事件已不限於過去的言行騷擾,基於圖像影音的濫用行為也是重大威脅,包括性勒索、未得同意散布私密影像以及以AI技術為基礎的虛擬影音濫用等。相關軟體如Air Drop可在半徑九公尺的範圍內匿名傳輸相關影像,另外,軟體DeepNude可將一般女性圖像轉換成三點全露的女性圖像,其他相關技術還包括能將人臉與其他身體進行合成的深偽(DeepFake)技術,這些技術都已嚴重侵害女性權利。

焦點座談

第一輪回應

戴伸峰教授

我接觸的議題較多屬實務面向的性侵害案件,而我傾向使用犯罪者的理性選擇理論來看待此議題。當犯罪者遂行犯罪的回報大於成本,對他而言犯罪行為就值得投入。值得一提的是,網路中性別犯罪的性質略有不同,這些網路罪犯往往希望得到心理上的寬慰,犯罪成效是心理酬賞而非具體酬賞(如贖金),此外,根據目前法規,遂行網路犯罪的成本相當低廉。

李雅菁委員

從一位教育者的角度而言,我們會思考日常教學是否會強化既有性別刻板印象,而目前觀察到的現象是網路平臺的匿名性能讓加害者隱匿身分和行蹤,並因此產生更多歧視言論,其便利性則助長了歧視言論的傳播,最後,網路言論長期保存的特質也使對受害者造成的傷害難以被抹滅。

林萃芬諮商心理師

以個人從事心理諮商多年來的經驗來看,確實有許多來諮商的女性因性別暴力產生心理創傷。人們天生具有對他者的好奇心,並因此延伸出窺視他人的慾望,無法控制此慾望而侵害他者的加害者通常對他人具高度敵意,當他們無法獲取目標時,就很有可能遂行侵害行為。一般而言,加害者可分成熟識者與陌生人,以熟識者為例,當情侶分開時,懷有恨意的一方可能會透過毀壞對方名譽的方式破壞其獲取幸福的可能性。侵害案件往往造成受害者心中無法抹除的傷痕,傷痛會長期持續,每當侵害行為被提起,可能使受害者心情低落甚至造成長期憂鬱的情況,可謂影響深遠。

蔡沛珊檢察官

性別暴力已是長期受關注的社會議題,但數位化的時代卻使該議題更為複雜。在我的檢察官生涯中觀察到,男性受害者有逐年增加的趨勢。一般而言,要男性承認其性別暴力受害者身分乃至於進行通報並非易事。去年的知名案例是男球星在兒少時期曾遭受性別暴力,通常兒少性別暴力的案件對加害者的懲處較高。目前散布私密影片的最高罰則是五年以下有期徒刑,威脅前任伴侶散布性愛影片也可能觸法,即使如此,我認為真正解決這類問題的方式是將影片強制下架。

第二輪回應

張凱強秘書長

2016年臺灣接受《聯合國兒童權利公約》並將其內國法化,並因此進行法案增修,《兒少性剝削防制條例》因此產生,條文內容也新增許多新興犯罪態樣,然而,我國在性平保護的作為上仍有諸多不足之處。我想從法治社會氛圍兩個層面探討數位性別暴力的議題,想請教雅菁委員,即使我們從小就開始進行性平教育,但目前社會上仍存在譴責被害者的氛圍,有無可能透過教育落實改善此種氛圍;另想請教萃芬心理師,如此氛圍對被害者造成的心理壓力為何?此外,想請教戴教授,目前性別暴力法規包含加害人處遇,不知老師認為目前機制是否有效?最後,請問蔡檢,根據我國法律規範,當性私密影像被上傳網路時,檢察官可依法持搜索票進行搜索,請問這要耗時多久?蒐證項目為何?以您的實務經驗,目前相關法律程序是否會造成受害者困擾或對其產生相關影響?

李雅菁委員

從教育者的角度出發,我們會從加害者與受害者雙方不同角度進行教育,會以同理心的角度呼籲學生莫要成為加害者,並警告隨意製造或散布性交猥褻照將產生相對應之罰則。此外,若學生處於受害者角色,我們會告訴學生應採取若干措施保護自己以抵禦網路侵害行為,我認為教育部109學年度提出五不四要口訣是非常重要的,如下所述:

加害者角度(五不) 受害者角度(四要)
不違反意願           要告訴師長
不聽從他人指示隨意自拍 要截圖存證
不倉促傳訊 要記得報警
不轉寄私照 要檢舉對方
不取笑被害  

此外,我覺得師長必須抱持傾聽理解的態度面對孩子多元的性傾向,若否,持部分性傾向的孩子可能會羞於求助,反而造成其求助無門的窘境。

林萃芬諮商心理師

有時候,師長會出於好意告訴受害者莫要大驚小怪,並進行一些於事無補的安撫,或基於擔憂而責難受害者,這些行為往往對受害者造成二度傷害。那要如何處理受害者議題呢?首先,我覺得傾聽是其中的靈魂要素,第二,我們須積極介入並積極關懷受害者,共同討論如何處理創傷修復的議題,最後,可透過培養積極性友誼給予受害者陪伴,並重視受害者感受。受害者在遇害後,往往會罹患創傷後壓力症候群(posttraumatic stress disorder,PTSD),PTSD症狀包括驚恐、惡夢、持續性負面想像等現象,它會破壞受害者對人的信賴度,須投入心理諮商資源。從加害者角度來看,我們須理解性議題與相關行為是人格、心理偏差和心理狀態的呈現,性教育其實也是人格教育,與家庭教育和性別觀念認同有關。因此,在關懷受害者的同時,也須對加害者進行輔導,性犯罪和性偏好與加害者的心理和成長脈絡有關,我們須加以理解並探討如何培養健康的心理狀態。

戴伸峰教授

目前性別暴力仍非重罪,修法的確讓犯罪成本提高,但我們須設問,嚴刑峻法是否會讓犯罪者三思衡量是否該進行犯罪行為?治亂世用重典的概念是否適用?我認為其實未必。要從根本遏止犯罪,我們須探究犯罪本質,目前法務部已投入大量預算為性別暴力罪犯進行心理認知療法,但成效仍須加強。目前性別暴力的再犯率仍高,或可投入諮商與臨床心理資源,提高刑責未必能降低犯罪率,僅能提升民眾的安心感。因此,我認為降低性別暴力案件再犯率與治亂世用重典的概念其實不太相關。

蔡沛珊檢察官

就我個人法務經驗而言,認為首先須釐清潛在受害者與相對人之間的關係,若雙方正處於或曾處於親密關係,在已有親密照但未加以散布的情況下,可透過民法19條要求下架。但若親密照持有者威脅散布親密照,那受害者可依循兩大法律途徑:其一,透過家暴法16條向法院申請保護令,命加害人不得散布影像;其二,加害人行為已構成刑法中的《散布猥褻物品罪》,受害人可截圖存證依法處理。若加害人是陌生人則回歸到各刑事分局處理。

提問與回應

題一:請教戴教授關於性別不安與跨性別意識的異同,剛剛沒聽清楚怕自己混淆。

戴伸峰教授:性別不安的定義是指自我認知性別與自己被指定之性別不同而感受到的不安情緒,與跨性別意識是兩個議題。在扭曲的認知中,性犯罪者對於自己的性犯罪解釋行為與一般大眾有所不同,一般而言,他們的犯罪意識感通常較為薄弱。

問題二:李委員座談中提到家長老師應該要接受孩子的性向,讓孩子求援願意相信老師及家長,才願意向老師和家長求援,是嗎?

李雅菁委員:家長或老師可能平時就會跟孩子表達對不同性傾向的看法,孩子就會感受到,萬一在網路上因為自己不同的性傾向遭受到性別歧視甚至是暴力時,就更不敢跟家長或老師求助了。

Gender discrimination and violence in social media

Information

Date: May 26 (Wed.) 2021, 14:00-16:00

Location: Online service only

Moderator:
•Kevin Chang, Secretary-General, Women in Digital Initiative
Panelist:
•Ya-Ching Li, member, Gender equality education committee
•Tsui-Feng Lin, counseling psychologist, Heart Ware Clinic
•Pei-Shan Tsai, prosecutor, Department of Prosecutorial Affairs, Ministry of Justice
•Sheng-Feng Dai, Professor, Department and Graduate Institute of Criminology, National Chung Cheng University

Session details

According to Cyber Violence against Women and Girls published by UN Women, there are six broad categories that encompass forms of cyber violence against women and girls (VAWG). They are hacking, impersonation, surveillance/tracking, harassment/spamming, recruitment, and malicious distribution. Another survey from Taipei Women’s Rescue Foundation shows that 10% of the Tawainese have suffered from personal photos/video leakage, with 90% of the victims being female. 

Internet should be a free and open space where every person’s freedom of speech is fully protected. However, a lot of people exploit this freedom and use it to inflict harm on women and girls. On the one hand, the Internet and social media fuel and exacerbate gender violence; on the other hand, they present new opportunities and enabled various efforts to address this unhealthy trend. In this session, the Taiwanese community will discuss the education and communication needed to counter a wide range of gender violence online.

Millions of women and girls around the world are subjected to deliberate violence because of their gender. On top of that, we should also pay attention to the violence targeting minority groups who don’t conform to gender stereotypes.

Minutes

The session started with an overall introduction from the moderator, Kevin Chang, about how gender-based violence and discrimination are infiltrating the social media and online space. This is a global phenomenon, but the discussion today would focus on Taiwan. According to a survey conducted recently by foreign media, domestic violence—either verbal or physical—has at least doubled since the corona outbreak. Additionally, people have been spending much more time online due to the pandemic, which also led to the increasing prevalence of online violence and harassment.  

An old advertisement slogan would ring a bell with every Taiwanese born around and before the 90s: ‘technology always stems from humanity.’ Quoting this slogan, Kevin pointed out that humanity has both bright and dark sides, which means technology, when manipulated by those with malice, can cause harm not only online but also in the real world.

He elaborated on the double-bladed nature of digital communication technology. The technology provides instant, anonymous, and interactive communication; it spreads words and ideas much faster, easier, and without borders. On top of that, everything, once got online, is almost impossible to eliminate. Some might argue these features are the benefits of digital communication technology. However, these features also make it much more difficult to track down the bad guys and delete harmful content. In other words, it is much harder to discipline, mitigate, and publish the bad actors enabled by digital communication technology.

Is there a definition of digital gender violence?

The Association of Progressive Communications (APC) defines gender-based violence online as ‘acts of gender-based violence that are committed, abetted or aggravated, in part or fully, by the use of information and communication technologies [ICTs], such as mobile phones, the internet, social media platforms, and emails.’ 

The general recommendation no. 35, an update to the recommendation no. 19 of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), although short of a distinct definition, suggests that ‘gender-based violence against women occurs in all spaces and spheres of human interaction, whether public or private. These include the family, the community, the public spaces, the workplace, leisure, politics, sport, health services, educational settings and their redefinition through technology-mediated environments, such as contemporary forms of violence occurring in the Internet and digital spaces.’ (emphasis by the author)

In Taiwan, the Gender Equality Committee of the Executive Yuan also provides guidance on the definition, types, and significance of digital/online gender violence. The guidance, however, was not written in an easily comprehensible way due to its juridical and bureaucratic nature.

Women in Digital Initiative (WIDI) develops an easy guide explaining digital gender violence in laymen’s terms. According to this guide, there are five categories of digital gender violence: 1) gender-based violation of privacy, 2) gender-based hate speech and conducts, 3) digital sexual harassment and virtual rape, 4) digital human trafficking and sexual exploitation, and 5) abuse based on images and videos.  

  • gender-based violation of privacy

When an abuser (a) invades, holds and controls the victim’s privacy information; (b) reveals the victim’s personal information against the victim’s wishes; or (c) counterfeit or defraud the victim’s identity.

Common examples of gender-based violation of privacy include cyber manhunt and doxxing, digital stalking and harassment, illegally hacking and stealing personal data, violating people’s sexual privacy using technology (e.g., videotaping sexual private moments), Internet of Things (IoT) related domestic violence (e.g., surveying one’s partner using smart home devices), and false personation online.  

  • gender-based hate speech and conducts

This can happen when an abuser encourages and promotes violent acts and hate speech against a specific individual or group of people, or even threatening to impose sexual violence upon them. 

Examples include hate speech targeting people with certain ‘idiosyncracies’ (e.g., men portray feminine qualities), death or rape threats against individuals, and promotion of sexual violence against a certain group of people. This is often found in male-dominated online communities when they share ‘jokes’ about ‘women behave only after being beaten up.’

  • digital sexual harassment and virtual rape

Abusers sexually harass the victims utilizing digital technology or via the Internet, or raping the victims in virtual settings.

For example, spreading sexually inappropriate images via airdrop in public space; sending sexually improper or harassing messages/images via texts, emails, or private messages on social media platforms; raping the victim’s virtual identity in online games.

  • digital human trafficking and sexual exploitation

Human trafficking and sexual exploitation enabled by the Internet and general digital technology. Managing or supervising illegal sex trade with ICT-enabled means.

Examples can be found in inveigling sex workers online, controlling/exploiting sex workers by holding and threatening to spread their private sexual images/videos, utilizing digital currency to conduct sex trades.

  • abuse based on images and videos

This happens when the abuser possesses the victim’s private sexual images/videos using digital technology/Internet and (a) threatens or extorts to spread the said images/vide; (b) distribute the said images/videos without the victim’s consent. It can only happen when the abuser uses digital technology, for example, AI or deepfake, to make fraudulent sexual images or videos of the victim.

After a long and thorough introduction, the penal discussion started.

First of all, the panelists were asked to share their experiences and takeaways on this issue. Ya-Ching Li is a teacher in elementary school. She agreed that the Internet has significantly worsened gender violence and discrimination due to its anonymous, convenient, and consistent nature. As a counseling psychologist, Tsui-Feng Lin tried to analyze the psychology of gender-based violence online. She recognized that voyeurism is human nature and argued that the ‘invisible cloak’ bestowed by the Internet to its users inevitably emboldens the bad actors to cross the line from peeping to practice.

According to Lin, there’s a difference between digital gender violence conducted by strangers or someone the victim knows. However, she did not have the chance to elaborate on what and how makes of the differences due to the time constraint. She agrees that gender-based violence enabled by digital technology inflicts the same level of, if not higher, harms to the victims.

Victims can suffer from low self-esteem and serious depression as a result, and Lin urges us to address and tackle gender violence online as a social issue more seriously than we are now. The general public should pay more attention to this problem, and we should actively explore ways of constructing a safer Internet for all users. Of course, it can not be stressed enough that the culture of blaming the victim is not only ignorant but also harmful.

Every time when we have conversations about issues in the digital world, people complain about how legislative effort is lagging far behind the pace of technology advancement. Professor Sheng-Feng Tai explained why gender-based violence and crimes have surged from a criminological psychology perspective as digital technology becomes quintessential. According to Prof. Tai, people still evaluate the circumstances and make rational judgments when committing crimes. This means that they will assess the cost, the gain, and the risks before committing crimes.

Tai explained that the cost of gender-based violence online—due to its anonymous and instant nature—is extremely low. For the bad actors, the satisfaction of attacking and demean women online is an easy gain with little to almost no cost or risk. The reward of simply clicking and typing is instant and infinite, despite not substantial. Following this theory, Prof. Tai argued that we have to find ways to increase the cost or reduce the gain—in other words, make online gender violence less ‘cost-effective’—to prevent and discourage gender-based violence in digital form.

A prosecutor in practice, Pei-Shan Tsai shared how law enforcement deals with digital gender violence in the real world. While it remains true that the majority of victims from gender-based violence are female, Tsai pointed out that the ratio of male victims has increased in the past years, making up around 13% to 16% of the total cases. It is especially challenging for men to acknowledge the fact that they have become the victim of gender violence or sexual crimes.

In legal practice, many factors can influence how a case is proceeded and executed. For example, whether the victim is a minor or an adult can make a huge difference. According to Tsai, Taiwanese law provides better and more comprehensive protection to underaged victims of sexual crimes. Similar protection is relatively lacking if the victims are adults. Additionally, whether the suspect committed the offense intentionally or negligently can also affect how the case is deemed to proceed.

Commenting on the point of increasing numbers of male victims, Li worried that the intolerance of ‘different’ gender expressions in the household and school is one of the main reasons why boys and men are reluctant to admit being victims of gender violence or sexual crimes. Sometimes the fear is double-layered. The victims are not only afraid of acknowledging the fact of being harmed but also timid of the aftermath—being forced out of the closet.

The panelists also discussed the toxic culture of blaming the victims. From her counseling experience, Lin has seen many cases where friends and family hurt the victims ‘again’ by saying things such as ‘you should have been more careful’ and ‘how come you did not notice?’ These words sometimes are more harmful than the original crime/violence. People often excuse themselves by claiming that they ‘meant well,’ but Lin stressed that instead of ‘well-meaning’ advices, what the victims need are actually simply a pair of ears and knowing that you will always be there for her/him.

From a psychological perspective, sexuality and sexual practice can often be seen as the demonstration of one’s character and mental state. That is why Lin stressed that offenders of gender violence also need counseling sessions. The importance of proper and comprehensive sex education can not be overemphasized.

All panelists agreed that a more draconian law is not what we need to deter gender-based violence or sexual crimes. How to develop and enforce the law in a more comprehensive manner is indeed an important issue and one we have to tackle seriously. Still, the law is by no means the only means to the end of curbing recommitment. As suggested by many during the penal discussion, education is the key. We need education at every front to foster a healthy and appropriate attitude to sex, preventing offenders from becoming offenders and therefore protecting victims from becoming victims.