伸張正義或侵犯人權?從烏克蘭政府使用人臉辨識談起

烏克蘭政府坦言使用美國科技公司Clearview AI的人臉辨識技術,在社群媒體識別出俄羅斯戰亡士兵的身分,並通知其親友領回遺體。此舉一方面是展現人道精神,協助戰亡的俄軍回家;另一方面,也能戳破莫斯科當局的「無義務役參與和無人陣亡」謊言。Clearview AI表示,其系統還可以協助找出混入人群中的俄羅斯間諜及情報人員,或幫助沒有攜帶身分證明文件的烏克蘭難民和家人團圓。

此次Clearview AI免費提供其系統給烏克蘭政府使用,看似仗義之舉。不過,這家號稱擁有全世界最大臉部辨識資料庫的科技公司,其實已是訴訟纏身。例如:美國的芝加哥法庭正在審理它是否違反伊利諾州《生物特徵資訊隱私法》;義大利則是在今年3月判決它違反歐盟《一般資料保護規則》(GDPR),並處2,000萬歐元罰款;英國也於2021年11月以違反英國《資料保護法》為由,對它開罰1,700萬英鎊;還有加、澳、法等國政府也勒令它停止蒐集並銷毀已取得的個資。此外,Facebook和Google等美國科技巨頭亦寄發存證信函,要求它停止擷取平臺上的照片。

而引發爭議的,還有辨識的準確性。除了戰時可能出現的辨識度因為臉部受損而降低之外,既有的演算法偏見(如對有色人種的辨識正確率偏低)更是一大問題,一旦於安全檢查哨或交戰當下比對錯誤,可能會導致無辜人員的傷亡。其實人臉辨識技術已被各國用於查緝等執法作業,且Clearview AI向來也強調,其服務可以協助執法單位調查犯罪、增進公共安全,並可為無辜的受害者伸張正義。然而,國際特赦組織於2021年發起「禁止掃描」(Ban the Scan)行動的一大主因,正是美國發生多起執法單位透過人臉辨識技術進而恐嚇或逮捕參加遊行民眾的事件。

究竟人臉辨識技術用於戰爭時期的哪些用途較為安全或合適?為什麼Clearview AI會備受爭議且觸犯許多西方國家的個資或隱私法規?應用上的倫理問題為何?又這些應用或問題是否也同樣出現在臺灣?而我們該如何讓人臉辨識技術發揮其智能識別但同時也降低潛在風險?本座談將邀請專家帶您共同探討相關問題。

合作夥伴:台灣人權促進會

時間及地點

時間:2022年6月21日 , 14:00-16:00

地點:IEAT國際會議中心8樓綜合教室

Webex線上與會:https://wuchiatzu.my.webex.com/meet/pr1584618216

議程

14:00–14:05     活動介紹

14:05–15:45     焦點座談

  • 主持人-陳正然(數位經濟暨產業發展協會 理事長)
  • 與談人
    • 林昕璇(文化大學法律學系 教授)
    • 周冠汝(台灣人權促進會 專員)
    • 許永真(台灣大學資訊工程學系 教授)
    • 黃肇雄(訊連科技 董事長)

15:45–16:00        現場問答

Using Facial Recognition Technology in the Warfare

Ukraine government is using facial recognition software to help identify the bodies of Russian soldiers killed in combat and track down their families to inform them of their deaths.  The move is not only to show humanity but also to spot Moscow’s lie that “no one was killed in the war”.  The technology used even help identify Russian spies and intelligence agents in the crowd and help reunite Ukrainian refugees and their families who do not have identification documents.

The free offer of the facial recognition technology solution from Clearview AI seems a righteous move, however the company — who claims itself with the largest facial recognition database in the world, — has faced a string of legal challenges.  To name some of them, Chicago federal court is hearing if Clearview AI’s solution violates the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act; Italy’s data protection agency announced a €20 million penalty to the company for breaches of EU GDPR; The UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has provisionally fined Clearview AI £17 million for breaching UK data protection laws last November; tech giants such as Facebook and Google have sent cease-and-desist letters to Clearview – to ask them to stop using pictures from the sites.

Several reports have also raised questions about the technology’s accuracy. Studies have shown that facial recognition software often fails to identify colored skin faces and can introduce biases. When used in the war for identifying the dead, the injured and expressionless faces can render facial recognition unusable.  If match incorrectly, the result may lead to casualties of innocent people.

Facial recognition technology has been used by law enforcement in many countries.  Clearview AI always emphasizes that its solution has help the law enforcement agencies investigate crimes, thus enhance public safety. However, Amnesty International initiated “Ban the Scan” campaign in 2021 for the fact that, the United States law enforcement has used the technology to intimidate or arrest people participated in the protests.

In this panel, experts in the fields are invited for discussing issues such as: can we ignore the controversy debate when facial recognition technology is applied in wartime?  What are the ethical issues in technology usage? Is it possible to use the facial recognition technology without privacy and other risks?

This event is co-organized with

Time: 2022/6/21 02:00-04:00PM

Venue: IEAT International Conference Center Meeting 8F Room 2 (No. 350, Songjiang Road, Zhongshan District, Taipei City)

Moderator: Mr. JR Chen (Digital Transformation Association, President)

Panelists:

  • Prof. Hsin-Hsuan Lin (Chinese Culture University Department of Law, Professor)
  • Ms. Kuan-Ju Chou (Taiwan Association for Human Rights, officer)
  • Prof. Jane Yung-Jen Hsu (National Taiwan University Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering, Professor)
  • Dr. Jau Huang (CyberLink Corp., Chairman and CEO)